El Hierro — How an Island Can Serve as a Model for Renewable Energy

El Hierro, the most remote of Spain’s Canary Islands, is on track in 2011 to complete an important step in its transition to energy sustainability. The island’s government expects to go live shortly with a combination wind and hydroelectric facility that will generate nearly all of the island’s power from renewable sources. (Photo: Coastline, El Hierro. Credit: ezioman, CC BY 2.0)


The El Hierro effort illustrates the value of islands as test cases for the development of energy-self-sufficiency in communities, and as proving grounds for renewable-energy technologies.

Historically, the island has generated electricity with diesel fuel shipped in by tanker. Now wind and solar farms will generate the island’s power, with excess power stored via a pumped-storage hydroelectric facility. The hydro plant will use excess electricity to pump water uphill into a 556,000-cubic-meter-capacity reservoir, where it can be released later to drive turbine generators. The reservoir is built in the crater of an extinct volcano.

Map showing Canaries and El Hierro

El Hierro, with land area of 276 square kilometers (107 square miles) and a population of about 11,000, attracts tourist trade drawn to its beautiful coastlines, mountains, and landscapes, along with archaeological sites and artifacts dating back to the pre-hispanic era. UNESCO has designated the island a Biosphere Reserve. The island’s windy heights make it a good candidate for wind power generation, and its clear skies for solar energy. (Maps: El Hierro, Canary Islands shown off the coast of Africa. Credit: OpenStreetMap, CC-BY-SA)

Smart Technologies Integrate Wind and Hydro Power

Gorona del Viento El Hierro, a local company on the island, is handling the overall construction and engineering for the combined renewables project. The company has contracted the Spanish Elecnor Group to design and develop the hydro-wind turbine plant and bring it into service. Elecnor says that, as a result of the initiative,

… the island will no longer require its annual consumption of 6,000 tonnes of diesel (40,000 barrels of imported oil), and it will reduce its emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere by 18,700 tonnes every year.

Illustration of El Hierro's hydroelectric station

(Illustration: Combined wind-hydro power station. Courtesy of Gorona del Viento El Hierro. For access to a larger version of this image, click here.)

ABB Group, a Swiss-based power and automation systems firm hired in turn by Elecnor to build the electrification and control systems for the hydro plant, says El Hierro’s 11.5 megawatt (MW) five-turbine wind farm and 11.3 MW hydro plant will provide 80 percent of the island’s energy needs, with the remaining 20 percent generated through solar thermal collectors and grid-connected photovoltaic systems. (See ABB’s announcement, “The world’s first renewable energy island.”)

ABB representative Antonio Ligi tells me that, after commissioning of the wind-hydro facility, El Hierro will continue to generate the remaining 20 percent of its energy needs with the existing diesel power station for an interim period while the solar systems are under development.

ABB says its contribution to the project “comprises a new interconnection substation, equipped with UniGear and UniMix medium voltage switchgear, which will receive the power generated by the five wind turbines and the hydropower turbines, and deliver it to the island’s main substation via distributed transformers and a Relion REB 670 intelligent protection system.”

El Hierro pumped-storage reservoirOne of the great challenges of integrating renewable energy sources into electric grids is managing their inherently uneven production of electricity — the wind only blows when it blows, and the sun only shines when it shines, but the utility needs to be able to match generation fairly closely with demand, within certain tolerances. (Photo: Pumped-storage reservoir on El Hierro. Credit: Mataparda, CC BY 2.0)

ABB’s announcement shows how the company’s systems help mitigate that problem in the case of El Hierro:

An important challenge for ABB was the installation of Automatic Generation Control (AGC), which maintains stable plant frequency and voltage by sharing active and reactive power demand in the generators and tie-lines. This is done in a way that allows the working points of the generator sets to operate with as much margin as possible, so that the plant can withstand bigger disturbances.

A distributed control system (DCS) “will control the four hydropower turbines, the pumped storage process, the new interconnection substation and the existing substation, and communicate with the new wind farm.” Describing how things work from a system perspective, ABB says,

By communicating with the wind farm, the ABB control solution will automatically start releasing water from the upper reservoir to generate power at the hydroelectric plant whenever the wind power generated is insufficient to meet demand. Conversely, excess wind power will be used to pump water to the upper reservoir, for use when wind power is low.

According to Andrés Cala, writing for the New York Times, Gorona del Viento El Hierro is a consortium 60 percent owned by the island’s government, 30 percent by Spanish utility company Endesa, and 10 percent by the Canary Institute of Technology. The €65 million ($87 million) project is partly funded by a €35 million European Union government grant. El Hierro plans to reinvest the expected €4 million yearly in profits from the venture to develop solar heating and electric-vehicle systems.

Islands: Important Test Cases for Renewable Energy

Despite ABB’s headline and other write-ups I found on the El Hierro project (e.g., “The world’s first renewable energy island”), El Hierro is not the first island to position itself as all-renewable.

For example, the Danish island of Samsø, with a population of 4,000, began the conversion to all-renewables in 1998, and now generates all of its electricity from wind power and 75 percent of its heat from solar and biomass. (See Wind-Works’ article “Samsø: Denmark’s Renewable Energy Island” and Elizabeth Kolbert’s 2008 New Yorker article, “The Island in the Wind.”)

El Hierro wind farmOf course, El Hierro ups the ante in that its population is more than twice that of Samsø. In one other important respect, though, El Hierro appears distinctive. A study by Siti Fauziah says that unlike Samsø’s, El Hierro’s electric grid is independent and unconnected to any other system: “[The island] is totally isolated, as the significant sea depths make any interconnection impossible.” She writes that diesel generators will remain in place on the island for emergencies. (Illustration: El Hierro Wind Farm. Courtesy of Gorona del Viento El Hierro)

The El Hierro initiative is serving as a model for renewable-energy projects in other isolated communities. ABB says that the Greek island of Icaria is modeling its own hydro-wind project on El Hierro’s. According to a brochure from the Canary Institute of Technology, similar projects are under consideration on the islands of Crete and Madeira.

In a 2009 BBC program, Gonzalo Piernavieja, research and development director for the Canary Institute of Technology, maintains that

Islands can play a very important role as pioneers of the energy revolution… We think we are pioneering part of this coming energy revolution in the sense that islands are aiming at energy self-sufficiency. The model of having an island with a hundred percent — or a high percentage of renewable energy penetration — can be replicated in lots of islands worldwide…

The island as a whole can serve as an experiment not only for this particular energy combination, but also for other types of energy-related issues like mobility, like efficient transport solutions… Examples like El Hierro will prove technologically that this is possible.

Peter Sweatman, CEO of investment-consulting firm Climate Strategy, tells Cala of the New York Times that

El Hierro is an emblematic project. It’s really a role model for other islands, and for non-islands it’s a test case to fully develop the potential for pump storage.

Eduard Sala de Vedruna, research director for the Europe Wind Energy Advisory Group of IHS Emerging Energy Research (IHS EER), also believes El Hierro is an important test case. He tells Cala,

It’s very positive to the power industry to have a renewable energy storage system running. El Hierro is going to be replicable in other islands first and as the system improves its application will expand to other systems. Many clichés about renewable energy will be broken once this is proven, as costs fall and large-scale application increases.

Pueblo of El Pinar on El Hierro

(Photo: Town of El Pinar on El Hierro. Credit: Mataparda, CC BY 2.0)

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  • CHAGANTI
    July 18, 2011

    WORLDS CHEAPEST ELECTRICITY cost per each MW 3 million US$ and generation cost just 10 Indian paisa per kw or unit
    RAW MATERIAL IS FREE AND NO TRANSPORTATION CHARGES
    SMALL GRID IS SMART GRID IS MY CONCEPT FOR TRANSMISSION TOO
    METHOD:
    FULL TEXT
    Renewable energy is considered to be “environmentally” clean – meaning it is typically non-polluting example the application is water running in man made structures is my idea
    ‘Head’ is a measurement of water pressure or kinetic energy
    In dams the head is often proportional to the height of the water behind the dam (From top of the reservoir to the bottom of turbine tail release) because the powerhouse is to the very bottom of the head in the dam or bottom of the dam
    Head is used for make the water run faster and faster down and down with kinetic energy transferred from top of reservoir into turbine blades
    By increasing the height of the water level behind the dams increase the force of the falling and running water down the pen stock on the turbines blades, thereby increasing electrical generation capacity
    Low head dams are less than 30 feet tall and typically have generators smaller than 10 megawatts (MW), whereas high head dams are at least over 500 feet tall and have generators of at least 30 MW and more according to the water availability
    Dams store water as a source of fast, reliable and zero emission clean and green energy generation and they can serve as a base load source of electricity to link with variable generation of today’s fossil fuel and nuclear energy
    Rivers have water “pressure head” or the running water pressure to turn the turbine for electrical generation
    Kindly read my innovation or method (Text)

    KINDLY DO NOT COMPARE THIS RUN OF THE OCEAN POWER

    GENERATION TO PUMP STORAGE TECHNOLOGY

    THIS IS A KIND REQUEST ALWAYS KEEP THIS NOTE WHEN YOU READ

    THIS TEXT — THANK YOU

    RUN OF THE RIVER HYDRAULICS ARE USED FOR POWER GENERATION
    IN CASCADING DESIGN
    DEAR SIR,
    Where h = water depth, A = cross-sectional area, B = surface width, S0 = bottom
    slope; Sf = friction slope; V = velocity, g = gravity acceleration and = velocity of the
    moving abscissa x. Integration of Eq . (1c) leads to the law x = x(a,t): if = 0

    SUBJECT: RUN OF THE OCEAN
    {Running water is used to generate power and turbine is in the shape of a revolving garden gate model majority of the running water is hitting the side of the turbine blade for the turbine to spin and water is passing in a straight line from the tail release down into the following reservoir}

    RUN OF THE RIVER CONCEPT IS ADOPTED INTO RUN OF THE OCEAN

    I HAVE DESIGNED THIS CONCEPT CALLED “RUN OF THE OCEAN”

    AND I HAVE DESIGNED CASCADING MARINE HYDRO ELECTRICAL

    GENERATION USING THE HYDRAULIC LAWS TO GENERATE GREEN

    AND CLEAN ELECTRICITY AND THE APPLICATION IS OCEAN WATER

    IN MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER. ONE TIME INVESTMENT

    WITH THE DEGREE OF INCLINATION FOR THE WATER TO FLOW

    THE DESIGN OF THE PROJECT CHANGES, THE STEEPER THE FLOW

    LESS IS THE DISTANCE OF THE UNDERGROUND RIVER EXAMPLE

    WITH AT LEAST 1 DEGREE OF SLOPE THE RIVER IS 40 KMS LONG AND

    WITH AT LEAST 20 DEGREE SLOPE THE RIVER WILL BE JUST 5 KMS

    LONG GENERATING THE SAME AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY

    AS SEEN IN P –1 POWER HOUSE GENERATOR-TURBINE

    OCEANS WILL NEVER RUN AND I AM THE ONLY PERSON IN THIS

    WORLD TO DESIGN A CONCEPT IN WHICH OCEANS RUN BELOW THE

    MSL IN MAN MADE STRUCTURES. “EVERY THING IS MAN MADE”

    METHOD:

    FIRST SELECT A GOOD PLACE FOR DIGGING A UNDERGROUND RIVER

    NEAR THE OCEAN SIDE OR THE WATER BODY
    (NO HARM TO MARINE LIFE)

    PLACE A 250 DIAMETER CIRCLE PIPE RING UNDER A 20 METERS DEEP

    OCEAN

    DIG A 100-METER DEEP AND 250 DIAMETER WELL SLANTINGLY

    SLOPPILY DOWN FROM THE BOTTOM OF 20 METERS DEEP OCEAN

    BED

    THE WELL IS 250 METERS WIDE (DIA) AND 100 METERS DEEP

    “THE WELL IS NOT 100% VERTICAL” BUT SLIGHTLY SLANTING

    THE WELL WILL COME OUT OF THE BEACH SIDE AND THE DIGGING

    SHOULD BE TOWARDS THE CITY OR THE VILLAGE WHERE PEOPLE

    LIVE.

    THIS WELLS BOTTOM WILL TOUCH –100 (MINUS 100) METERS

    BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL AND UNDER THE EARTH

    AT THE WELLS BOTTOM 12 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS

    ESTABLISHED NATURALLY BECAUSE THE WELLS INLET IS IN THE

    20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER AND THE WATER RUNS DOWN FROM

    THE MAIN SEA LEVEL TO MINUS 100 METERS BELOW THE MAIN SEA

    LEVEL (20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER + 100 METERS WELL)

    THE WELL IS COMING OUT OF THE BEACH AREA AND THE WELLS

    OUTLET IS ESTABLISHED AT MINUS 100 METERS IN SOLID GROUND

    FROM THE WELLS BOTTOM SIDE (250 DIAMETER)

    A MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER IS DUG SLANTINGLY DOWN TO

    REACH MINUS 450 METERS UNDER THE EARTH

    THE TOTAL LENGTH OF THE MAN MADE RIVER IS 40 KILOMETERS

    LONG, 150 METERS WIDE AND 150 METERS DEEP

    (STARTING FROM – 120 METERS BOTTOM SIDE TO – 450 METERS FULL OF RUNNING WATER IN A STRAIGHT PATH VERY BIG KINETIC ENERGY THE RIVER IS HAVING A ANTI CORROSIVE FIBER GLASS PADDING TO REDUCE FRICTIONAL LOSS WHEN THE WATER RUNS DOWNTHE PATH)

    THE 250 DIAMETER WELL HAVING 120 METERS DEPTH WILL ACT AS A

    “HYDRAULIC HEAD” FOR THE UNDERGROUND MAN MADE RIVER

    AT THE RIVER INLET 12 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS ESTABLISHED

    NATURALLY 24 X 7 ALL THE YEAR

    ON THIS SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN MAN MADE UNDERGROUND

    RIVER 20 INDEPENDENT POWER GENERATION STATIONS ARE

    CONSTRUCTED IN CASCADING TYPE ONE AFTER ANOTHER

    THERE IS A GAP OF 2 KILOMETERS IN BETWEEN TWO INDEPENDENT

    POWER GENERATION STATIONS

    WHEN WATER IS RELEASED FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL AND

    ENTER THE UNDERGROUND RIVER INLET THE RELEASED WATER

    WILL RUN 2 KILOMETERS LONG AND OCCUPY 150 METERS WIDTH

    AND 150 METERS DEPTH WITH FULL OF RUNNING WATER

    THIS 2 KILOMETERS LONG MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER IS

    CONVERTED AS A MAN MADE RESERVOIR CALLED THE P1

    RESERVOIR

    P1 IS THE “MASTER RESERVOIR”.

    HERE THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WILL BE 27

    (20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER +100 METERS DEEP WELL + 150
    DIAMETER UNDERGROUND RIVER TOTAL 270 METERS)

    THIS RESERVOIR DIMENSIONS WILL BE INLET 150 DIAMETERS AND

    OUTLET 40 DIAMETERS AND WILL LOOK LIKE A MISSILE.

    THERE WILL BE 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS ON THE 40

    KILOMETERS LONG SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY DOWN RIVER

    ALL 20 INDEPENDENT RESERVOIRS WILL BE IDENTICAL i.e.

    IN METERS ONLY (kindly arrange p1 reservoir outlet to p2 reservoir inlet)
    The system follows like the railway compartments one after another
    PI RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P2 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P3 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    P4 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET,
    P19 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET
    And to the last
    P20 RESERVOIR: 150 DIAMETERS INLET AND 40 DIAMETERS OUTLET

    THE CONCEPT DESIGN IS INLET 150 DIAMETERS AND OUTLET 40

    DIAMETERS. POWER GENERATION IS DONE IN THE PATH OF

    FLOWING WATER COMING OUT OF THE 40 DIAMETER OUTLETS

    WATER WHEN RELEASED FROM 40 DIAMETER OUTLET THE

    RELEASED WATER WILL HAVE A WATER PRESSURE HEAD TO

    IMPINGE EACH (GARDEN GATE MODEL) TURBINE INDEPENDENTLY

    KINDLY UNDERSTAND EACH INDEPENDENT RESERVOIR DIMENSIONS

    AND UNDERSTAND THE VELOCITY OF THE RELEASED WATER FROM

    EACH RESERVOIR OUTLET BECAUSE WATER IS RUNNING DOWN AND

    DOWN FROM –120 METERS, WELLS BOTTOM SIDE TO REACH MINUS

    450 METERS BELOW THE MAIN SEA LEVEL

    KINDLY NOTE THE OCEAN OR THE WATER BODY WILL BE 450

    METERS ABOVE THE TAIL POND

    WATER IS CONTINUOUSLY RUNNING DOWN STRAIGHT FROM THE

    MAIN SEA LEVEL TO MINUS 450 METERS THE WATER HAS TO RUN 40

    KILOMETERS LENGTH AND THE RUNNING WATER IS PASSING

    THROUGH 20 INDEPENDENT POWER HOUSES BEFORE THE WATER

    WILL FALL AS A WATER FALL INTO THE TAIL POND SITUATED AT —

    450 METERS BELOW MSL

    THERE ARE NO TWISTS AND TURNS FOR THE RUNNING WATER

    TOTAL DEPTH 450 METERS (MSL TO –450 METERS UNDER EARTH)

    POINT 1)
    WELL 120 METERS DEEP

    (HYDRAULIC HEAD : 20 METERS DEEP OCEAN WATER + 100 METER

    DEEP SLANTINGLY WELL)

    POINT 2)

    UNDERGROUND MAN MADE RIVER 150 DIAMETER RUNNING DOWN

    FROM THE VERY BOTTOM OF THE WELL (HYDRAULIC HEAD 120Mtrs)

    FROM –120 METERS TO — 450 METERS IS THE SLANTINGLY SLOPPILY

    DOWN MAN MADE RIVER

    TOTAL 330 METERS SLOPE IS THE BALANCE IN WHICH 150

    DIAMETERS RIVER RUNS DOWN FROM – 120 METERS TO – 450

    METERS TO FALL INTO THE TAIL POND

    WATER WILL NEVER RISE THE ABOVE DESCRIBED

    DIMENSIONS OF THE UNDERGROUND RIVER

    NOTE:
    (FROM “BOTTOM SIDE OF THE WELL’’150 DIAMETERS

    MAN MADE UNDERGROUND RIVER FULL OF RUNNING WATER

    RUNNING DOWN AND DOWN LIKE WATER RUNNING DOWN THE

    SLOPE OF A 450 METERS TALL MOUNTAIN

    (FROM TOP TO BASE OF THE MOUNTAIN)

    ABOVE THE UNDERGROUND RIVER 120 METERS IS THE TOTAL

    HEIGHT (HYDRAULIC HEAD) EVER GREEN 12 ATMOSPHERIC

    PRESSURE

    AND IN THE ENTIRE CONCEPT (P1 TO P20 AND IN THE TAIL POND)

    WATER WILL NEVER TOUCH THE MAIN SEA LEVEL

    With energy needs rising and ever-growing requirements for cleaner energy sources, our company is dedicated to extracting renewable energy from our environment – cleanly, efficiently, and appropriately. This concept illustrate our creative solutions for green energy generation.
    · There is a significant altitude drop, where the water comes into the “master” p1 reservoir before being distributed to other reservoirs p2 to p20 arranged in cascading manner, rushing over a drop of few hundred feet at every reservoir, Operating at the high plant factor of 60% requires durable machines and accurate control equipment and less people.
    · This concept depends on automatic system combinations with SCADA(supervisory control and data acquisition, SCADA systems and software permit them to analyze all these issues, related to capacity, transmission and distribution, and respond effectively to prevailing market conditions in both the wholesale and retail markets.) usages are specifically geared for high usage and profitable operations. The fully automatic station will be trouble-free. All were reviewed on a levelized basis, taking into account capital costs, fuel costs, O&M costs, financing costs etc
    · READ MY BLOG TO KNOW MORE
    ·

    P1 CALCULATIONS:

    Always p1 power generation is for sale

    Calculation Of Hydro Power

    Before embarking on any hydro power generation project it is essential to survey the proposed

    site to calculate the amount of available hydro power.

    The two vital factors to consider are the flow and the head of the stream or river.

    The flow is the volume of water which can be captured and re-directed to turn the turbine

    generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall on its way to the generator. The larger

    the flow – i.e. the more water there is, and the higher the head – i.e. the higher the distance the

    water falls – the more energy is available for conversion to electricity. Double the flow and

    double the power, double the head and double the power again.

    A low head site has a head of below 10 meters. In this case you need to have a good

    volume of water flow if you are to generate much electricity. A high head site has a head of

    above20 meters. In this case you can get away with not having a large flow of water, because

    gravity will give what you have an energy boost.

    The key equation to remember is the following:

    Power = Head x Flow x Gravity

    where power is measured in Watts, head in meters, flow in liters per second, and acceleration

    due to gravity in meters per second per second.
    The acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 meters per second per second – i.e. each

    second an object is falling, its speed increases by 9.81 meters per second (until it hits its

    terminal velocity).

    Therefore it is very simple to calculate how much hydro power you can generate.
    Let’s say for example that you have a flow of 20 liters per second with a head of 12 meters. Put

    those figures in the equation and you will see that:

    12 x 20 x 9.81 = 2,354 Watts

    Below is our automated hydro-power calculator. Simply enter the head in meters, and the flow

    rate in liters per second, and the calculator will work out the amount of power carried by the

    water and the amount of power which can realistically be extracted from it to generate

    electricity

    Head: 150 m (meters), Flow Rate: 96000000 (liters per second)
    Hydro Power: (Watts) 1412640000000
    At 60% system efficiency (Watts) of generated electricity 847584000000 ( in red) please

    consider this

    Always p2 to p20 power generation is for pump consumption

    CALCULATIONS FOR P2 TO P20 i.e. 19 individual reservoirs

    I have taken just 40 meters head for each reservoir

    (Inlet 150 m and outlet 40 m reservoir dimensions)

    Simply enter the head in meters, and the flow rate in liters per second, and the calculator will

    work out the amount of power carried by the water and the amount of power which can

    realistically be extracted from it to generate electricity

    Head: 40 m (meters), Flow Rate: 96000000 (liters per second)
    Hydro Power: (Watts) 376704000000
    At 60% system efficiency (Watts) of generated electricity 226022400000 (in red) please

    consider this

    P2 RESERVOIR POWER HOUSE CALCULATION 226022400000 X 19 RESERVOIRS POWER

    HOUSES CALCULATIONS WILL BE 4294425600000 Watts used for pump consumption only

    Real World Hydro Power Calculation

    So in the example above a 12-meter head with 20 liters per second flow rate equated to just

    over 2.3kW of available power. Sadly it is not possible to tap all of that power – nothing is 100%

    efficient. However, hydro power turbine generators are very efficient when compared to wind

    turbine generators and solar panels.

    Efficiencies of around 70% can be expected which is to say that 70% of the hydraulic energy of

    the flowing water can be turned into mechanical energy spinning the turbine generator. The

    remaining 30% is lost. Energy is again lost in converting the mechanical energy into electrical

    energy (electricity) and so at the end of the day you can expect a complete system efficiency of

    around 50-60%.

    In our previous example where 2.3kW of power was available – we can therefore expect to

    generate around 1.1 to1.4kW of electricity.

    These same calculations are valid whether you are planning a tiny Pico or Micro Hydro Power

    system or the next Three Gorges Dam Hydro Project.

    NOW THE PUMP CALCULATIONS FOR NET HEAD –450 METERS

    TOTAL PUMP NET HEAD IS MINUS 450 METERS (TAIL POND AT — 450 METERS BELOW MSL)

    Hydraulic Pump Power

    The ideal hydraulic power to drive a pump depends on the mass flow rate, the liquid density and the

    Differential height
    -
    - either it is the static lift from one height to an other, or the friction head loss
    -
    - component of the system
    -
    - – can be calculated as

    Ph = q ρ g h / (3.6 106) (1)

    where

    Ph = power (kW)

    q = flow capacity (m3/h)

    ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3)

    g = gravity (9.81 m/s2)

    h = differential head (m)

    Shaft Pump Power

    The shaft power – the power required transferred from the motor to the shaft of the pump – depends on

    the efficiency of the pump and can be calculated as

    Ps = Ph / η (2)

    where

    Ps = shaft power (kW)

    η = pump efficiency

    345600000 q – flow capacity (m3/h) (96000m3/sec X 3600 SECONDS PER HOUR)
    ρ – density of fluid (kg/m3)
    g – gravity (m/s2)
    450 METERS h – differential head (m)
    η – pump efficiency 60%

    POWER CONSUMED FOR LIFTING 345600000 CUBIC METERS OF OCEAN WATER TO — 450

    METERS WILL BE:

    P2 to p20 reservoirs power generation used for pump consumption

    HYDRAULIC POWER : 423792000 (KW) 568305072 (bhp)

    SHAFT POWER : 706320000(KW) 947175120 (bph)

    WORLDS CHEAPEST ELECTRICITY

    THERE IS 1.3 CUBIC BILLION KILOMETERS OF WATER ON THIS

    PLANET

    JUST USE AS FREE RAW MATERIAL AND SAY NO TO FOSSIL

    FUELS FOR EVER IS MY CONCEPT OR IDEA

    IF WE THINK BIG WE CAN THINK SMALL AND IF WE DO BIG WE

    CAN DO SMALL

    POINTS TO CONSIDER:

    SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS

    Creates economic activity in remote areas

    Project co-ownership opportunities created for first nations

    Business venture opportunities created for first nations and local
    community

    Local tax revenue generated

    Construction and long term jobs created

    ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

    Zero GHG emissions No pollution or wastes created
    Displaces energy produced by oil, gas, coal etc

    ENERGY PRODUCED FROM A RENEWABLE RESOURCE SEA

    WATER REQUIRED NO FUEL THUS CALLED “CLEAN POWER”

    No acquiring of lands for construction of large dams

    No silt removal as seen in dams.

    Simple construction and requires less maintenance very robust

    and has long life

    LOCAL GENERATION AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

    ONLY LOCAL GRID “SMALL GRID” SMART GRID.

    NO TRANSMISSION LOSSES

    COST OF GENERATION VERY LESS AFTER THE REPAYMENT OF THE LOAN JUST FREE ELECTRICITY FOR LIFE TIME

    NO PURCHASE OF RAW MATERIAL

    NO TRANSPORTATION CHARGE

    WILL GENERATE CARBON CREDITS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION LOCAL AREAS WILL GET 24 X 7 FREE WATER SUPPLY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION LOCAL FARMING COMMUNITY WILL GET FREE ELECTRICITY 24 X 7

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL VILLAGES NEAR TO THE GENERATION AREAS FREE STREET LIGHTS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL PEOPLE BELOW POVERTY LINE WILL GET FREE ELECTRICITY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL FAMILIES WILL GET 20 UNITS PER MONTH FREE ELECTRICITY FOR COOKING THERE BY NO USAGE OF GAS .SEPARATE METER FOR THE 20 UNITS.

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ALL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS WILL BE CHEAP

    RAILWAYS CAN RUN ON ELECTRICITY AND ENCOURAGE TRAM SYSTEM FOR TRANSPORTATION IN THE LOCAL AREAS

    HYBRID VEHICLES WILL RUN ON ELECTRICITY BY TRACTION OR BY BATTERY

    CABLE CARS WILL BE HANDY IN HILLY AREAS

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION ELECTRIC BUNKS WILL SUPPLY ELECTRICITY AND REPLACE PETROL BUNKS THERE BY NO DEPENDENCY ON FOSSIL FUELS AND ON OTHER COUNTRIES TOO

    WILL STOP THE IMPORTS OF CRUDE OIL AND WILL SAVE FOREIGN EXCHANGE CURRENCY

    WITH EXCESS GENERATION FOOD PRODUCTION WILL INCREASE AND HORTICULTURE WILL DEVELOP IN EVERY VILLAGE

    DAIRY AND FISHERIES WILL INCREASE IN EVERY VILLAGE
    HAND LOOM INDUSTRIES WILL DEVELOP IN LOCAL AREAS AND TRADITIONAL DESIGNS WILL GET ENCOURAGEMENT

    ALL FACTORIES WILL RUN ON 6 HOURS SHIFT AND WILL WORK 4 SHIFTS A DAY CREATING MORE EMPLOYMENTS ALL ALONG THE COAST

    MAJOR AND HEAVY INDUSTRIES WILL BE SHIFTED TO COASTAL AREAS TO GET HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICITY THERE BY NO USAGE OF FOSSIL FUEL’S AND NO POLLUTION AND GLOBAL WARMING

    IMPROVEMENT IN DESALINATION PLANTS AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY TO ALL LOCAL COMMUNITIES 24 X 7 ON THE COASTAL BELT

    WHEN LOAD FACTOR, PEOPLE + ELECTRICITY IS SHIFTED TO THE COASTAL AREAS ALL CITIES WILL BE NEAT AND CLEAN

    IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS

    ALL COASTAL AREAS WILL GET MANY ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTS MANUFACTURING UNITS, BATTERY MANUFACTURING UNITS THERE BY IMPROVEMENT IN DAY TO DAY LIVING ACTIVITIES


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